It seems that almost every person experiences the incomparable joy of acquiring their own housing at least once in their life. It is also quite natural that everyone wants to make their home beautiful, comfortable, warm and cozy. After all, the house is a primary need for a person, and for a good reason we remember the warmth of our native “hearth” for our whole life, no matter where we live. It is the place where we return to after a busy day, a place where we endure our troubles and challenges, a place where children grow up and mature, a place where the loved ones are waiting.
The main requirement for housing has not changed since the Stone Age and the first cave settlements. The housing shall be warm. Today, sitting by the fire or throwing logs in the stove is the way of life for the tourists and residents of unpromising villages. Most of us are completely dependent on more or less centralized heating systems.
Frequent outages and failures of the heating system can turn even a mild winter into a nightmare. The drop in temperature in a residential building below + 15°C quickly makes you relate to the inhabitants of the Far North. However, not only the quirks of communal services can cause such suffering. When it comes to certain things, there is no one to blame but yourself. Please be mindful when choosing heating elements. It is of the utmost importance.
Before we examine the possibilities of various heating systems and devices available on the modern market, let us define the applicable terms and concepts. A complex heating concept should be presented accurately.
The heating of the house (apartment) can be local and centralized. Depending on the heating scheme, the systems are divided into dependent and independent, and depending on the way of circulation of hot water, heating is provided by means of artificial or natural circulation.
Heat transfer medium gets to the room through the pipes, where it is supposed to disperse heat into the surrounding atmosphere. The said heat output is called radiation. That’s why the familiar device is called the radiator. It was designed in such a way that when heated from the inside, it contacts the air with as much surface area as possible. That is why radiators sometimes have such fancy shapes.
The various types of radiators include:
- finned tubes;
- heating panels;
- section and panel radiators;
- bare-tube revolving register air grids;
- towel rails.
Let us first examine the common “accordion” installed under the window still.
Cast iron radiator is a traditional heating element. It is manufactured for over 100 years without any significant design changes. A lot of manufacturing plants were built to produce this type of radiator. “Cast-iron column-type radiator” is respected among the people as the most reliable and the most durable heating device. Gray cast iron evenly radiates heat, retains it for a long time and has a high resistance to corrosion.
At a recent conference of heating and ventilation specialists (AVOK), it was stated that the cast-iron “accordion” holds the position of the most reliable device and has a firm share of 30% of the entire market, even though it is the most inefficient when it comes to heat emission, it is heavy, and can not be fine tuned. The most common model – the radiator MC-140 – can be used at an operating pressure of up to 8 atmospheres, while all other radiators are operated at 6 atmospheres.
Slowly reacting to the dynamics in standard construction practices, the manufacturers have finally begun supplying radiators that fit into modern households. If you had to reduce the window size or expand the room to install the “cast iron piece” in the panel house before, now you can easily choose the necessary dimensions: from 300 to 700 mm height, and from 90 to 140 mm depth.
One of the “sore spots” of native product is its appearance. At the end of the day, it’s not just the specifications that matter, but the way the product complements the interior design is pretty important. They way common radiators look is atrocious. That’s why while appreciating the functionality of cast iron radiator, the owners tend to hide the shame of soviet design. The radiators are hidden away like a mad relative would be. Can’t cast away, cant introduce to the guests. The hiding appliances include drapes, screens, and frames.
The main competitor of cast iron radiators in the modern world of heating systems is, of course, steel. The steel battery weighs much less, the metal is thinner, and therefore the device heats up much faster. In order for the cast-iron battery to reach 40°C, the water temperature in the system must be at least 60°C. In the “cruising mode” at least a dozen degrees will go only to heat the radiator, while contributing nothing to the room temperature.
Steel radiators are a cast product, with upper and lower manifolds, and a vertical channel that connects them. On both sides, the fins are connected to each other by perpendicular panels, which not only increase the heat transfer, but also form an even surface. Because of this, the dust is not accumulated in inaccessible areas, and the radiator itself does not need a “veil”, because it looks stylish and presentable, even having some kind of “hi-fi” chic.
Another large group consists of steel panel radiators. There are a lot of brands similar in aesthetic design, technical and economic characteristics available on the market: KERMI, SANTEHRAI, KORADO, among which the most widely used are domestic appliances manufactured at the modern SAN TEH RAI enterprise, as well as Korado-Radik, Lideia, PRADO radiators. Among all the variety of models available on the market, radiators with a height of 300, 500, 600 mm are the most popular, since they fit under the window sill, the place common for heating devices. Modifications of panel radiators, offered by the Polish company Purmo, Czech company Korado, and Ukrainian company SAN TEH RAI, are most suitable for the aggressive conditions of the housing and communal services system. Their design provides a good distribution of warm airflow and prevents the accumulation of dust on the wall and on the radiator itself. This factor plays a huge part when installing heating elements on the premises with demanding hygienic requirements (child-care facilities, hospitals. etc.).
Steel panel radiators are designed for operating pressures up to 10 atmospheres, and temperatures up to 150°C. There are two types of radiators: PCB – columnar with vertical channels between upper and lower horizontal registers and PCT – with horizontal channels. The radiators of the series (type) 11 are the cheapest, and the radiators of the 22K series have a higher thermal conductivity and small size. According to experts, the radiators of these series are the most cost-efficient and attractive from an aesthetic point of view. Double enamel coating provides maximum durability of the paint. Comfortable and elegant design of thermal system perfectly fits into any extraordinary interior.
Another innovation are radiators made of two metals. Bimetallic technology is considered today the most “advanced”. In a bimetal radiator, each metal is used for its advantages: a steel core ensures the strength of the system, and aluminum fins provide high heat output. The design documentation of the manufacturer of bimetallic radiators «SAN TEH RAI» allows to use bimetal radiators in systems with operating pressure up to 10 atm. Installation and distribution of heat elements are significantly reduced due to absolute symmetry and universality, and the use of rubber heat-resistant gaskets ensures the strength of the connection between the elements. These radiators are tested for strength and certified in the Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary Engineering. The experts highlighted their high energy-saving properties, while the prices for bimetal radiators range from 8 to 10$, depending on the technical characteristics. The warranty on the bimetallic radiators of the «SAN TEH RAI» factory is the highest on the market and reaches 25 years from the date of installation.
Section radiators made of aluminum are able to decorate any interior with their geometric shapes. They are much lighter than cast iron, easily respond to automatic controls, and occupy a minimum of space. The radiators are equipped with fins that enhance the convection of air, preventing dust accumulation.
Many models are used at an operating pressure of 6-8 atmospheres, making their operation impossible in high-rise buildings. Combining aluminum devices with components of steel, copper or brass greatly accelerates corrosion. This is facilitated by the chemical composition of circulating water saturated with oxygen and chemical components. The aforementioned characteristics of aluminum radiators outline the main area of their use by autonomous heating systems.
We hope that we were able to help you a little to better understand various types of radiators. Please find further the table of comparative characteristics of sectional and panel radiators for reference.